Management of ICT in transforming higher education in Uganda: the rationale, problems and prospects
Twentieth century has seen many technological advances in many areas of society, ranging from the discovery of radio, the airplane, the atomic bomb and the summit was the up on the moon. All these technological advances have adverse effects on the lifestyles of communities around the world. However, the most important is the invention Internet and intranet historic achievement has greatly influenced the academic life of universities around the world. Period 1990s opened a new world order the beginnings of the idea of globalization and its immediate effects on the evolution of higher education. Globalization is the international system is today Most companies, including academic programs. It is a process that is "loaded" super interaction and integration of cultures, politics, business and intellectual elements worldwide.
This article examines the effects of globalization in terms of technological change in the development of universities. The constantly changing technology in higher education is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, with the ubiquity of large global networks such as Internet and Intranet as a struggle of institutions to prepare students for effective participation in the emerging global knowledge economy. Technologically based education is still seen as a way to address the growing global demand for higher education. University a week is needed to keep pace with the growing world population but resources are not available. For example, once the number of students enrolled increased massively in many public universities in Uganda in the early 1990 and beyond, resources and existing infrastructure does not increase in proportion to the increased capacity of students. reading rooms and libraries are floods and infrastructure and instructional materials and staff are limited to the student population has increased alarmingly. Higher education must develop more profitable so that public resources can be increased and used effectively. A conference room at a public university's more than 300 students attending a class economy will not be effective if more sound systems installed to allow each student to benefit from the conference.
Similarly, if a university is not Internet service is to serve its student population more, then it would be very difficult to guarantee the quality of teaching and research. Thanks to the technology in education, universities can serve the public cost effective and, in particular, can better prepare students for a society based technology. Given the increasing globalization and transnational exchanges in many areas. In these circumstances, policymakers, politicians and citizens must make demands on education systems reform. Open and distance learning are at the forefront of responses to the educational changes that are organized at local, regional, nationally and internationally.
Processing technology of information in universities, however, systemic implications and must be handled with care. Once the organization takes the first steps from data to information, its decision-making structure management, and even how he got his work begins to be transformed. Attempts to introduce significant reform will affect all of its subsystems. The advent of information technology in a university to share everything will be very great impact on the internal and external operations of the university. This implies that technological progress Information universities must be prepared to welcome these crucial developments. It relates to the fact that the systematic management of universities is to train or hire labor to exploit the technology and the universities themselves must change teaching methods to meet the needs of new information technology.
Using technology to expand the campus to the world will have an impact on all aspects of a university or college, but particularly administrative systems. Similarly, when referring to the need to consider innovations in institutional development. The introduction of e-learning will conduct the comprehensive review of basic practices of a university organization, if advertising support, registration or the design and delivery of materials, or the student or the student evaluation and research to get the best way to provide these services in a network, the multimedia environment.
Involving University for reform technological universities
Educational institutions exist to open minds and deliver into question the doctrine, but at the same time, the workforce fills these institutions is very resistant to change. Higher education can be described as essentially bureaucratic and bureaucracies, by definition, resistance to change. I remember an impact on my life when my old college professor hated what we call a computer and a projector used in teaching. Each time I told that my analysis based on the software research, rejected You are doomed to failure investigation, please use the formulas I gave you in class. "Such an expression represents a reaction and" old-fashioned academic "is not willing to accept the recent developments in the world in the field of academics in universities. Many other students, these days, face the wrath of the teachers themselves blind. Because of the widespread resistance to changes in most institutions of education, innovation, technology has been implemented as an isolated case, the initiative for all staff college to ensure effectiveness. In this scenario, larger systems in higher education are often not considered and not affected by the innovation.
Technological innovations also had difficulty taking first priority in college Educatio office. Higher education, like other sectors of society, has often responded to new ICT applications on the basis of efficiency rather than the use of more strategic considerations. Some staff members have remained still advocate the use of legacy systems for processing student newspapers. They kind of writer and methods of maintaining old disk still used to create inefficiencies in the administration office "transcription" and the office of the Department exams. The traditional case management tends to strangle the operational efficiency. More changes in the education of the twentieth century and twenty first centuries have been the first-order changes, which aims to improve efficiency and effectiveness of current practices. One such change is the introduction of the Internet's premier computer and work management and teaching methods. Therefore, attempts to oppose this development in a lucrative global institution is a path in the wrong direction because the technology is there to stay.
To ensure a sound quality control of ICT education and e-Learning, it is important that educators and educational policy driving and direction of the technological transformation of higher education. Therefore, the structures to support technology-based education should ensure that focus on education and the state of education principles and policies based on management's wishes and a change of attitude. The literature on non-traditional forms delivery of higher education through avant-garde technology, indicates that the use of ICT in education raises issues previously unencountered and Pedagogy adult education, which are the attitudes. Moreover, these problems are mainly to do with the wisdom of those who fear technological change. technology decisions should be preceded by political and educational decisions and stressing the importance of bottom-up approaches and more organic in the technological transformation of the higher education in the developing world.
academics to assess ICT is an important management reform higher education, and reform has be based on the development of "learning communities." This means that the current reform process must engage academics in real time to learn to use new technologies and see that this technology is to promote the creation of their own initiative to build more confidence in themselves and share. In most cases, ICT training should be mandatory to all academics and Don. This requires serious bottom-up approaches to promote and implement the reforms. The best attempts reforms to educational opportunities in technology have failed and will fail until they are cultural traditions and beliefs that underlie teaching practices current and the readiness of the organization. In the technological transformation of higher education, it seems necessary to address the concerns and perceptions academic staff in the light of the need to change their attitudes and ensure ownership by academic staff.
Owner of technological change academic staff is essential, as it requires major changes in professional roles. This highlights the need for specialized roles and the need for academics to gain skills and knowledge of effective use of new technologies and the demand for in-depth training. University staff need an attitude change technological advances and the need for more complex training session in the use of these technologies and enjoy. New technologies developed world education for a new role for teachers, to students and course materials. It focuses on the construction of knowledge by the student. A teacher becomes a facilitator and promoter and Information becomes something to work, think, discuss, negotiate and discuss with partners.
The expertise needed to develop Technology-based material-learning another point of justification for the use of development teams. technology to produce quality materials based learning requires people who can combine teaching with a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different media and technologies. design teams are accepting the model of distance education and open university course development using computers in depth. The predominant pattern during the team's training distance and the main advantage of this model is that it runs on a high professional level.
technological transformation in higher education, enforcement and innovation based on new approaches to organizational processes. An innovation may be described as an idea or behavior that is new to the organization to adopt. The application and the adoption of something new that requires a culture of commitment, patience and acceptance of change. This way, bottom-up innovation in the development of ICT is important because it promotes the development of the willingness of partners and generates collective participation of the lower frames in the decision process leading to a consensus. It is difficult resist change that comes from the bottom among the users. The importance of a bottom-up process for successful innovation is the diffusion of leadership. If no shared leadership right in the beginning, then this technology will probably not be able to survive in the university system.
It is also necessary to ensure dissemination of innovation in large systems of higher education. The theory of diffusion of innovation provides a general explanation how the new entities and ideas and information and technology based education over time, diffuse through social systems, education superior. The theory of diffusion of innovation is essentially a bottom-up based on individual responses that can be used as a starting point to describe evolution of technology in higher education. Initially, there is a takeoff during which an innovation is introduced into a social system. A business group called it often innovative. During the next phase of maturity early adopters ", who are change agents and opinion leaders within the social system, enter in the process, thereby legitimizing innovation and openness of the adoption potential of all members of the system. The final stage of saturation in the adoption of an innovation is characterized by its widespread adoption. Innovation permeates the social system and growth declines. This process can be drawn as a growth curve of the form of S
We have seen that technology can not be separated from development of the university, as it is transient with globalization and its intentions. Therefore, it is necessary to overcome any resistance from staff and management technology that make it difficult to take root especially when the computer and the Internet era is more difficult in education great listening, planning and implementation of records. In an attempt to cause an attempt to allow dynamic era of ICT and e-learning to take root, there are several patterns to be taken at first hand are:
- Promote top-down and bottom-up strategies that promote the development and use of ICT in universities through diffusion of innovation. The level of resources available to promote the use of ICT is not possible without the leadership and support personnel. When political issues such as typical resistance to change is irrational found, senior management is able to intervene and direct questions. Middle managers and staff, is the head of academic and administrative departments and teachers play an important role in the control of resources and support works.
- The broadcast can be supported through the use of a structure of distributed applications. An e-learning center, for example, was created to provide central support and coordination of project progress to promote technological universities. Even learning is essential to adapt to these technologies, where teaching methods must develop ICT strategies and course work must be done with the installation of ICT.
- Universities must have time to secure ownership of the technology staff, even the most rigid and conservative type staff should see the benefits of e-learning and ICT in the development of higher education. Ownership by the academic staff is essential in the dissemination of e-learning strategies that promote learning and effective learning.
- To ensure ownership of e-learning in universities, academic staff is important for educators and education policy to promote technological change. Staff development can be used as an important strategy to advance in the transformation of higher education.
- The application of educational technology in the program requires establishing a robust technology infrastructure. All staff must have a Pentium computer, printer or access to a printer, Internet access and e-mail with power outages and the closure of the minimal network. The library also must create a technology rich learning environment.
In conclusion, the creation of a sustainable vision and strategic framework for the implementation of effective implementation technological innovation is critical. However, the institutional leadership necessary to promote the use of technology in university education. The primary function important institutional leadership may be the creation of a shared vision that includes general admission and support of faculty and administration, provides a clear purpose for education, is valid for stakeholders, and reflects the institution's overall mission. If African universities can not take advantage of the revolution information and surf the big wave of technological change that can be crushed by it. Take this wave, visionary leadership is required at most universities on the continent.
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